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Since the last time I’ve posted. . .

Dear Readers,

I miss you, and I (Sincerely) love you.  It has been awhile, right?  Well, I’ve been producing a Masters paper while moving twice, getting divorced, and all sorts of shit.  So here’s the deal.  I’m going to try and do right by you, and stay with all the stuff that matters in the news today, and all the stuff that the future needs.  I’ve changed in this process, and I’m finally settled, so I can actually (gasp!) do what matters.  The new year will mark a brand new stage for the Practical Utopian.  I have much to say, soooo much to critique, and a lot to cover.  But. . . first thing is first.  Loose ends need tied.  This is just a relatively little post to let you know. . . I’ve got your back, though I’ve been absent.  The U.S. has been declared a battleground, wherein we can all (in the US) be arrested for no reason, really, and the world is worse than it was than when I’ve last posted.  But I’ve got your back.  I haven’t forgotten you.  Soon enough, back to business.

The Practical Utopian.

Philosophy: Revolutionary Road and Alienation

The following review contains spoilers, just so you know.

Revolutionary Road, the 2008 movie with Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet based on the novel of the same name by Richard Yates, is a film about the American Dream.  The movie centers around Frank and April Wheeler, the model couple for their community, who just moved into a house on Revolutionary Road, and have recently discovered that their American dream has fallen flat.  Frank works at Knox Business Machines and, obviously, hates his job completely.  His wife, April, stays at home with their two children (after failing an attempt at becoming an actress), and hates her life equally.  The movie begins with a massive argument between the two, flashes back to happier days when they first purchased their house on Revolutionary Road, then resumes in the present with Frank at work, obviously unhappy.  After being chided by his boss at work, he takes a young secretary out for drinks.  He tells her a ‘joke’ . . . that his dad worked at Knox as a salesperson his whole life and hated it completely, and while Frank vowed to never end up like his father, he is also a salesman at Knox.  Frank sleeps with her.  He comes home, only to find that his wife and children threw him a surprise birthday party.  Some short time later, April thinks of a solution to the monotony and meaninglessness they feel in their lives. . . remembering comments Frank expressed about having been to Paris, she proposes that they pack up their things, Frank quits his job, and they move there, with her supporting them through secretarial work while Frank finds both himself and what he actually wants to do. 

Frank and April are both unhappy because of the alienation they experience in their lives.  Alienation is the term used to show that two things which are naturally joined (and should be) are artificially separated from each other.  Karl Marx, the German economist and philosopher, names four types of alienation that the modern worker experiences under capitalism.  The worker is (1) alienated from what he makes when he is working (because he made it but does not get to choose its use or destination. . . his ‘boss’ does), (2) alienated from the act of working itself (he does not choose what he does, how he does it, or why he does it), (3) alienated from his human nature (because Marx saw humanity as naturally and rationally capable of choosing their actions, and thus their lot in life, and your boss takes control over your work), and finally (4) alienated from community, because he doesn’t see anyone’strue essence, and because he is thrust into competition with others (and controlled by his ‘boss’).  Frank feels all these things.  He hates when his boss tells him what to do, and feels powerless over what he does.  He knows he is capable of more in his life, and that he doesn’t want to work for Knox, and he doesn’t feel a kinship with his fellow workers because he rejects the role that they seem so comfortable in. . . he sees himself as no one special or worth having a good life, and sees everyone else likewise. 

April is also alienated.  She wants more for her life than her role as a wife and mother of two.  Engels, Marx’s longtime collaborator and friend, wrote that the origin of the monogamous nuclear family, the type of family April and Frank have, is the first source of the oppression of women.  April does not want to be resigned to household labor–the 1950’s American Dream does not work for her, and she is alienated from her true self.  She proposes moving in order to have a fresh start, to let herself be liberated from the home, and Frank be liberated from the alienation he experiences at work.

Their friends seem unsupportive of their moving (though likely from jealousy) and we are shown their private conversation where they try to convince themselves that they are happier than the Wheelers’ possibility of moving.  Shortly afterwards, they receive their first visit from John, and his parents Mr. and Mrs. Givings (Mrs. Givings was the Realtor who sold them the house on Revolutionary Road).  John had just been let out of a psychiatric ward, and is extremely blunt, but the Wheelers remain patient.  Frank and John discuss that the former feels hopeless in his life.

As Frank and April start preparing for Paris, they are far more happy in their lives and relationship.  Soon after, Frank gets awarded an opportunity for a raise and promotion.  He comes home, neither having taken the job nor telling April, and he and April have sex in their kitchen, happy in the path their relationship is taking.  Later, April tells him she is eight weeks pregnant; she suggests that she could have an abortion in the next month, which Frank is unsure of (thinking of his promotion, which he still hasn’t told April about).  He tells her about the promotion sometime later, when they are out with friends and he loudly mentions it . . . and April knows that he’s been rethinking the Paris move in favor of the job. 

Arguing later about abortion and the move, it is revealed that they moved to their house on Revolutionary Road because of April’s last pregnancy, and April didn’t want another part of her life determined by pregnancy. [The following sentence spoils the end, so highlight it to read it.]  Their relationship continues to degrade, and eventually April has an abortion (after the 12 week safety deadline), dying in the process.

Again, Revolutionary Road is all about the alienation felt by people in the capitalist system.  Frank and April never reached their potential, and so they wanted to have a chance at a new life.  This alienation caused a major rift in their relationships, shown most clearly when they were preparing to move, and their relationship was never better.  They have debates with each other throughout the movie, usually beginning with April realizing their possibilities and the limitations of their present circumstances, and Frank arguing that they aren’t special people, and by implication deserve as alienating a life as everyone else.  The exchanges of dialogue and events in this movie show many different factors that hold up the capitalist system.  The beliefs of any particular period are referred to as the ideologies of the time, and generally speaking, any ideology that is widespread tends to be one that supports the ruling class (because more people have to support the status quo than not for it to continue in any particular time period).  The belief that Frank has that only ‘special’ people deserve lives that aren’t meaningless, and that they aren’t ‘special’ people.  This type of belief resigns people to the fate of bad lives and bad jobs because they feel like such things are parts of life; the difficulty is they are avoidable parts of life, and that no one deserves to resign to a bad life.  But Frank is less sincere than he is using such beliefs as justification for his decision to abandon a happy future for one in a job that he hates for more money.  This shows a phenomenon that Marx discusses, picked up by Erich Fromm, in the distinction between having and being.  Having and being are two modes of life, or orientations towards existence and values.  Capitalism supports having over being; one defines oneself not as a free actor, but a free consumer, whose identity is formed through purchasing objects rather than performing actions and making choices that express one’s sense of self.  Marx advocates being over having, where consumption is considered only a means to one’s ability to make said choices, and express oneself in a way that benefits the self expression of others.  Frank chooses having (through increased consumption ability) over being (i.e. a happy life where he is able to live his dreams).  April would have chosen the opposite.  One key feature of ideology is that it places limits on what possibilities can be thought of as real possibilities, and it was this feature of ideology that caused Frank to choose having over being. 

Revolutionary Road also shows how the family stifles change; once one becomes enmeshed and weighed down by familial obligations, one is more dependent upon the rewards of class society.  April knew this, and it is for this reason she wanted an abortion. 

Ultimately, Revolutionary Road shows the futility of trying to escape the system as an individual, rather than change it.  As individuals, so many factors can disempower a person, from having children to facing the uncertainty of a new life, and no escapist solution can change the source of the alienation: capitalism.  April had the heart to be a Revolutionary on Wheeler Road, and her plan to escape to Paris would have made progress towards that end.  But if she wanted true meaning in her life, she would have been better off seeking systemic solutions to eliminating the alienation of others.

Rest in Peace, Salvador Allende.

Today is the 100th anniversary of the birth of the 29th Chilean president, Salvador Allende.  Allende was the first Marxist world leader to be elected by popular vote.  Allende was assassinated by a U.S.-backed military coup on September 11th, 1973. 

Rest in Peace, Salvador.

This post is just a plug for some excellent books and authors I want to share with everyone. –comment if you have one you want to add, or have a comment on one I’ve added.

Rodney Peffer- Marxism, Morality, and Social Justice

Charles Andrews – From Capitalism to Equality

http://www.laborrepublic.org/

Michael Albert – Parecon

Cockshott and Cottrell – Towards a New Socialism

http://www.ecn.wfu.edu/~cottrell/socialism_book/

 Erich Fromm – To Have or To Be, The Art of Loving, the Sane Society

Michael A. Lebowitz – Build it Now

Meszaros – Socialism or Barbarism

 

 

Here is but a small set of Christian scriptures (restricting myself mostly to the New Testament) concerning capitalism.

On consumerism, materialism, and capital accumulation.

Capitalism is fueled by what Leslie Sklair calls “the culture-ideology of consumerism,” a set of social beliefs that encourage demand for material things–the hoarding of stuff.  Additionally, corporations and individuals in capitalist economies tend towards emphasizing economic growth exclusively–all other things are advocated in terms of their promotion of economic growth. 

Matthew 6: 19-21.

Treasure in Heaven
Lk. 12.32-34
19  ¶ Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, Jas. 5.2, 3 and where thieves break through and steal:
20  but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal:
21  for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

Perhaps it may be objected that the economy needs to grow in proportion to the people in it. . . and I agree, but its distribution among them ought to be equalized.

More on consumerism, care for material things – Matthew 6: 25-34

Care and Anxiety
Lk. 12.22-31
25  ¶ Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?
26  Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?
27  Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?
28  And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin:
29  and yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory 1 Kgs. 10.4-7 · 2 Chr. 9.3-6 was not arrayed like one of these.
30  Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which today is, and tomorrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
31  Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?
32  (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.
33  But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.
34  ¶ Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

On Debt – a major feature of capitalist society.

Matthew 6: 9-14

9  After this manner therefore pray ye:

        
Our Father which art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy name.
10  Thy kingdom come.

        
Thy will be done
in earth, as it is in heaven.
11  Give us this day our daily bread.
12  And forgive us our debts,

        
as we forgive our debtors.
13  And lead us not into temptation,

        
but deliver us from evil:
For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, 1 Chr. 29.11 for ever. Amen.
14  For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you . . .

I’ve found a lot in the New Testament alone that opposes capitalism on many levels–and I haven’t needed to go beyond Matthew 6.  I’ll end the way all New Testament exhibitions should end–

Matthew 5:3-12

The Beatitudes
Lk. 6.20-23
3  ¶ Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4  ¶ Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Is. 61.2
5  ¶ Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Ps. 37.11
6  ¶ Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Is. 55.1, 2
7  ¶ Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
8  ¶ Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Ps. 24.4, 5
9  ¶ Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.
10  ¶ Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: 1 Pet. 3.14 for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11  ¶ Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 1 Pet. 4.14
12  Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets 2 Chr. 36.16 · Acts 7.52 which were before you.

Luke 10:25-27 (And look at the whole sermon)

25  ¶ And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
26  He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou?
27  And he answering said,

        
Thou shalt love the Lord thy God
with all thy heart, and with all thy soul,
and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; Deut. 6.5
and thy neighbor as thyself. Lev. 19.18

Happy Easter!